Exosomes play a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication as carriers of important messages. Exosomes reach distant target cells, where they release their cargo (proteins, DNA, RNA, microRNAs, cytokines, metabolites, and lipids) (PMID: 32029601).
In recent years, exosomes have generated considerable scientific interest due to their extensive application in the diagnosis and therapeutics of human and animal diseases. Exosomes in both human and veterinary medicine find their major application in neoplastic diseases, but applications in the field of veterinary cardiology, nephrology, reproduction, parasitology, and regenerative medicine are currently being explored. Exosomes can therefore be used as diagnostic, prognostic, and, in some cases, therapeutic tools for several animal conditions (PMID: 34451863).
In veterinary medicine, exosomes are considered a new therapeutic tool in regenerative field, especially in joint and musculoskeletal disorders, such as osteoarthritis, tendon and ligament injuries and intervertebral discs degeneration (PMID: 32545382).